Provided are bisphenylene-spirobifluorene compounds, a method for synthesizing the same, and EL material and device having the same. The bisphenylene-spirobifluorene compound is defined by the following formula: ##STR00001## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are identical or different and are independently a straight-chain or branched alkyl group having from 1 to 22 carbon atoms, X.sub.1 and X.sub.2 independently contains one or more elements selected from the group consisting of C, O, N, S, Si and Ge, and m and n are integers from 1 to 4.


< Hydrocarbon fluids

< Alkylaromatic process with catalyst regeneration

> Fuel composition

> Process for the telomerization of a conjugated diene, catalyst and bidentate ligand useful therein

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