A phthalocyanine dye of formula (I) is provided: ##STR00001## wherein: M is a metal group or is absent; n is 1 or 2; X is selected from --CHR.sup.3--, --NR.sup.3--, --O-- or --S--; R.sup.1, R.sup.2 and R.sup.3 are independently selected from hydrogen, C.sup.1-8 alkyl, C.sup.1-8 alkoxy, carboxy, carboxy-C.sup.1-8 alkyl, hydroxyl, hydroxy-C.sup.1-8 alkyl; or R.sup.1 and R.sup.2, or R.sup.2 and R.sup.3 together are joined to form a C.sup.4-12 aryl or C.sup.3-12 heteroaryl group, optionally substituted with 1, 2, 3 or 4 substituent groups, the or each substituent group being independently selected from C.sup.1-12 alkyl, C.sup.1-12 alkoxy, phenyl-C.sup.1-8 alkyl, phenyl-C.sup.1-8 alkoxy, --(OCH.sub.2CH.sub.2).sub.dOR.sup.d, cyano, halogen, amino, hydroxyl, thiol, --SR.sup.v, --NR.sup.uR.sup.v, nitro, phenyl, phenoxy, --CO.sub.2R.sup.v, --C(O)R.sup.v, --OCOR.sup.v, --SO.sub.2R.sup.v, OSO.sub.2R.sup.v, --NHC(O)R.sup.v, --CONR.sup.uR.sup.v, --CONR.sup.uR.sup.v, sulfonic acid, sulfonic acid salt and sulfonamide; d is an integer from 2 to 5000; R.sup.d is H, C.sub.1-8 alkyl or C(O)C.sub.1-8 alkyl and R.sup.u and R.sup.v are independently selected from hydrogen, C.sub.1-12 alkyl, phenyl or phenyl-C.sub.1-8 alkyl.

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