Superior molecular vaccines comprise nucleic acids, including naked DNA and replicon RNA, that encode a fusion polypeptide that includes an antigenic peptide or polypeptide against which an immune response is desired. Fused to the antigenic peptide is an intercellular spreading protein, in particular a herpes virus protein VP22 or a homologue or functional derivative thereof. Preferred spreading proteins are VP22 from HSV-1 and Marek's disease virus. The nucleic acid can encode any antigenic epitope of interest, preferably an epitope that is processed and presented by MHC class I proteins. Antigens of pathogenic organisms and cells such as tumor cells are preferred. Vaccines comprising HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein are exemplified. Also disclosed are methods of using the vaccines to induce heightened T cell mediated immunity, in particular by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, leading to protection from or treatment of a tumor.


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> Use of high dose concentrations of gaseous nitric oxide

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