An electrotransport agent delivery device (10) for delivering a therapeutic agent through intact skin, and a method of operating same, is provided. The device applies a pulsing electrotransport current wherein current pulses have a magnitude above a critical level (I.sub.c) at which the skin is transformed into a higher electrotransport delivery efficiency (E) state. Most preferably the length of the applied current pulses is at least 5 msec and preferably at least 10 msec.


> Gravity pressure vessel and related apparatus and methods

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